Çalışanların öğrenen örgüt algısının örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışlarına etkisi
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Günümüzün rekabet yoğun iş yaşamında, örgütlerin birer öğrenen örgüte dönüşümü, onların rekabetçi yeteneklerini artırmalarını sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca, günümüzde çalışanların sadece kendilerinden beklenen rol davranışlarını değil, bunun ötesindeki, gönüllü sergilenen rol ötesi davranışları da sergilemeleri beklenmektedir. Örgüt yazınında bu tür davranışlar örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları (ÖVD) olarak isimlendirilmektir. Öğrenmeyi destekleyen, astları güçlendiren bir liderlik sitilini uygulayan, takım çalışmasına ve iletişime değer veren yapıları ile öğrenen örgütler, çalışanların rol ötesi davranışlar sergilemeleri için uygun bir ortam hazırlayabilirler. Bu temel düşünceden hareketle yürütülen çalışmanın amacı, çalışanların öğrenen örgüt algılarının, örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışlarına etkilerini araştırmaktır. Yabancı veya yerli yazında böyle bir araştırmanın daha önce yürütülmemiş olması ise çalışmanın önemli bir boşluğu doldurmasını sağlamaktadır. Çalışmaya, Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren 20 farklı firmadan 436 beyaz yakalı çalışan katılmıştır. Analiz bulguları, araştırmaya katılan çalışanların öğrenen örgüt algıları ile örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları arasında aynı yönlü ve anlamlı bir ilişki olduğunu göstermiştir. Regresyon analizi sonuçları ise sürekli öğrenme, diyalog ve araştırma, gömülü sistemler ve destekleyici liderlik boyutlarının ÖVD üzerinde ilave varyans açıkladığını; ancak takım çalışması, güçlendirilmiş çalışanlar ve sistemler arası bağlantı boyutlarının ise ÖVD üzerinde böyle bir etki yaratmadığını ortaya koymuştur. Bu bulgular, öğrenen örgüt algısının çalışanların örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları üzerinde önemli bir etken olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca araştırma bulguları yöneticiler açısından değerlendirildiğinde de önemli sonuçlar sunmaktadır. Örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları, çalışanların gönüllü ve örgütün işleyişine katkı yapan davranışlar olduğundan, bu tür davranışların çalışanlar tarafından sergilenmesi, hem örgütün ürün ve hizmet kalitesinin artmasına yardımcı olmakta, hem de böyle bir artış için hiçbir ilave maliyet ödenmemektedir. Şu halde bu davranışları artıracak yönde örgütü dönüştürmek, yönetsel anlamda da fayda sağlayabilecektir. Araştırmada, ortaya konulan bulgular tartışılmıştır.Discretionary behaviors that promote the effectiveness of organizations differ from formal role behaviors. These informal role behaviors have been termed as prosocial organizational behavior (Brief and Motowidlo, 1986; George, 1990) or organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; Bateman and Organ, 1983; Organ, 1988; Smith et al., 1983). Dennis Organ and his colleagues (Bateman and Organ 1983; Smith et al., 1983) were the first to conceptualize OCB, describing it as &#8220;individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization&#8221; (Organ, 1988, p. 4). Briefly, these behaviors are not compulsory in job definitions, are not rewarded or punished by organization management, and are discretionary. Dimensions of OCB include altruism (discretionary behavior that intends to help others in the organization about a certain problem), conscientiousness (a general compliance that requires employees to go beyond their minimum job requirements), courtesy (intentions that consider others before acting or deciding and informing them about the actions), civic virtue (employees&#8217; self-responsibility about organizational problems and attention to the social and political life of the organization) and sportsmanship (willingness to accept the inevitable problems or matters that are related to the job; Organ, 1988). As the ability to survive in an uncertain and turbulent environment is becoming more vital for work organizations today, the need for employees who voluntarily contribute to the organizational welfare beyond their formal roles is greater than ever (Somech and Drach-Zahavy, 2004). Therefore, organizational climate and structure need to be designed to support the emergence of OCBs. Transforming an organization into a learning organization by spreading the learning culture throughout the organization may both expedite to cope with the uncertainty of the environment more effectively and to meet with OCBs more frequently because employees&#8217; expectations will be satisfied. In this study we tried to demonstrate how employees&#8217; perceptions about their companies in the case the companies being learning organizations would affect their OCBs. Many studies have focused on the antecedents of OCB or OCB&#8217;s relation with some organizational factors. However, the learning capacity of the organization as an antecedent of OCB has not been treated as often. A common result of all these studies is that employee perceptions about the job atmosphere are crucial if employees are to behave beyond formal roles or display OCB (Somech and Drach-Zahavy, 2004). In learning organizations, people focus on continuous learning processes that are carried out collectively by all of the employees rather than on their own performance results. In such organizations, people expand their own points of view beyond formal role definitions and develop a system approach (Senge, 1996). This approach facilitates organizational learning so that learning ability of the organization can support OCB within the organization (Somech and Drach-Zahavy, 2004). In some studies, it is suggested that OCB could support interpersonal relations in the organization and that it also might be a useful tool for managers to use in fostering a lively work climate (Kidwell et al., 1997). In this respect, the discretionary characteristic of OCB might be both a motivational factor and one of the most important antecedents of teamwork in an organization. As another antecedent of OCB, the clarity of the job might be conceptualized as the extent to which employees know what to expect in their daily routine and how explicitly rules and policies of the organization are communicated. OCB is closely connected to job clarity, comprehensible norms and rules, and good planning of work (Turnipseed and Murkison, 1996). Job clarity is especially related to the shared vision dimension of the concept of learning organization. Sharing the vision among the organization members may increase the clarity of the job. Podsakoff et al., (1996) suggested that if the employees knew the future of their work, their OCB exhibitions would be augmented. Leader attitudes also play a key role in the emergence of OCBs in an organization (Brightman and Moran, 1999; Ehrhart, 2004; Turnipseed and Murkison, 1996). Some leader behaviors, especially transformational leadership behaviors, positively influence OCBs. Many studies have found a direct link between transformational leadership and OCB (e.g., Kent and Chelladurai, 2001; Koh et al., 1995; Podsakoff et al., 1990, 1996). In conclusion, given the interactions described above, it can be summarized that organizational structure and climate have a direct impact on the emergence of OCBs. Thus, we may expect more OCBs from employees in a learning organization than from those in an unlearning one. Hence, the hypotheses can be stated as follows: Hypothesis 1. There will be a positive relationship between employees&#8217; learning organization perceptions and their OCBs. Hypothesis 2. All of the learning organization dimensions will contribute significantly to each of the OCBs independently. In this study, the participants of the survey are white-collar workers from 20 different middle or large-sized companies in Turkey. The questionnaires, consist of Learning Organization Scale and OCB Scale, were posted to the human resources departments of the firms with an information note. Of the 600 questionnaires sent, 460 (76.6%) were returned. As a result, 436 valid responses were used in the study. Findings indicated that intercorrelations between the learning organization and OCB dimensions show statistically significant positive relations between the learning organization and OCB dimensions (p < 0.01). Although intercorrelations between learning organization dimensions were high (.71 &#8804; r &#8804; .86), they were average (.50 &#8804; r &#8804; .67) between OCB dimensions. The relation between the learning organization and OCB dimensions was significant, positive, and average (.24 &#8804; r &#8804; .55). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to test whether learning organization dimensions explained additional variance in OCBs. The final model for altruism included continuous learning (&#946; = .11; p < .05), dialogue and inquiry (&#946; = .12; p < .05), and providing leadership (&#946; = .12; p < .05). The conscientiousness model contained continuous learning (&#946; = .14; p < .05) and dialogue and inquiry (&#946; = .16; p < .01). The courtesy model comprised dialogue and inquiry (&#946; = .18; p < .001) and providing leadership (&#946; = .09; p < .05). The sportsmanship model contained continuous learning (&#946; = .13; p < .05), dialogue and inquiry (&#946; = .14; p < .01), and embedded systems (&#946; = .13; p < .05). Lastly, the civic virtue model included continuous learning (&#946; = .16; p < .01) and dialogue and inquiry (&#946; = .32; p < .001). It is interesting that team learning, empowerment, and systems connections dimensions had no significant effects on any of the OCB dimensions. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant and positive relation between employees&#8217; learning organization perceptions and their OCBs. Whereas the structures of the organizations are being transformed toward a learning organization, OCBs performed by employees found to be increased, yielding support for Hypothesis 1. To explore whether learning organization dimensions explained additional variance in OCBs, we conducted a hierarchical regression analysis. Results showed that the dimensions of continuous learning and dialogue and inquiry were the most important factors in predicting and explaining the variance of OCBs. Although embedded systems and supportive leadership helped to explain additional variance of OCBs, other learning organization dimensions (team learning, empowerment, and systems connections) had no significant effect; therefore, Hypothesis 2 was partly supported. These findings have some useful implications for managers. In today&#8217;s working life, employees are obligated to move beyond their formal roles to increase the organization&#8217;s accomplishments. Since the findings of this study revealed a strong and significant relationship between employees&#8217; learning organization perceptions and their OCBs, an organizational transformation toward a learning organization in those enterprises could augment OCBs throughout the organization. This study displayed a strong relation between learning organization concept and OCBs. OCBs play a key role in developing the quality of the services produced by organizations. To exist in a competitive world, organizations have to improve their service qualities. If managers can transform their organizations into learning organizations, it seems that OCB exhibition within the organizations is likely be enhanced&#8212;as will the service qualities.