Validating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in India and China: The role of hydroelectricity consumption
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The aim of this research is to examine the link between CO2 emissions, hydroelectricity consumption, urbanisation and real GDP in China and India during the period of 1965-2013. The long-run cointegration is investigated by the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach, which is augmented with structural breaks. We employ the ARDL cointegration test to establish long run relationship in the variables. Furthermore, we use the ARDL to show that real GDP and urbanisation have long-run positive impact on emission, while hydroelectricity consumption exerts long-run negative impact on emission in both countries. The results support the existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in China and India. Besides, the paper assesses the causal link between the variables by using Granger causality procedures and the results show that there is long-run bidirectional relationship between the variables in both countries.