Testing EKC hypothesis with energy and sustainable development challenges: a fresh evidence from belt and road initiative economies
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Diverse impact of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) over the landscape of environment is generally believed in literature. As CO2 emission acutely leads to GHGs is a major contributor for global warming, it creates a serious pressure on natural resources and ecological settings. Similarly, low-carbon (CO2) economy, plenty of energy resources, and sustainable growth are a big ask for worldwide economies in this era of mechanization. This paper analyzes the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, for Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) economies, to contend the role of mega projects in BRI as an attribute for ecological detriments. The on-hand study engages fresh data information ranging from 1981 to 2016 holding with heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence as a special deliberation. The calculated outcomes expose that, mean group estimator provides strong evidence and favor the existence of EKC approximately in every region. The long-run influence is measured by pooled mean group estimators, which shows significant outcomes in every region; additionally, the EKC hypothesis affirmed in the long run especially for developed economies. Mega projects, i.e., BRI requisite immense energy sources to accomplishing the enclosed projects efficiently and effectively. The positive association between carbon emission and energy consumption troubled the governments to make policies for restraining the magnitude of carbon emission and controls energy usage for enduring environment to its original position. Next, the valuations depicted the dense recommendations for state administrations in capacity of rigorous level supremacy, trash managing campaigns, renewable energy reliance, and advance for desirable judgments to sterilize the atmosphere.